High precision under adverse weather conditions

During a mid-March snowstorm, researchers from MIT Lincoln Laboratory achieved real-time, nighttime, centimeter-level vehicle localization while driving a test vehicle at highway speeds over roads whose lane markings were hidden by the snow. The sport utility vehicle used in the demonstration was equipped with a system that employs a novel ground-penetrating radar technique to localize the vehicle to within centimeters of the boundaries of its lane. The technique could solve one of the problems limiting the development and adoption of self-driving vehicles: How can a vehicle navigate to stay within its lane when bad weather obscures road markings?

“Most self-localizing vehicles use optical systems to determine their position,” explains Byron Stanley, the lead researcher on Lincoln Laboratory’s localizing ground-penetrating radar (LGPR) program. “They rely on optics to ‘see’ lane markings, road surface maps, and surrounding infrastructure to orient themselves. Optical systems work well in fair weather conditions, but it is challenging, even impossible, for them to work when snow covers the markings and surfaces or precipitation obscures points of reference.”

The laboratory has developed a sensor that uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate a baseline map of a road’s subsurface. This map is generated during an LGPR-equipped vehicle’s drive along a roadway and becomes the reference for future travels over that stretch of road. On a revisit, the LGPR mounted beneath the vehicle measures the current reflections of the road’s subsurface features, and its algorithm estimates the vehicle’s location by comparing those current GPR readings to the baseline map stored in the system’s memory. An article titled “Localizing Ground Penetrating RADAR: A Step Toward Robust Autonomous Ground Vehicle Localization” in a recent issue of the Journal of Field Robotics describes Lincoln Laboratory’s demonstration of the use of LGPR to achieve 4-cm (1.6-inch) in-lane localization accuracy at speeds up to 60 miles per hour.

“The LGPR uses relatively deep subsurface features as points of reference because these features are inherently stable and less susceptible to the dynamics of the world above,” Stanley says. Surface characteristics, such as lane striping, signs, trees, or the landscape, are dynamic; they are changed or change over time. The natural inhomogeneity in the highly static subterranean geology — for example, differences in soil layers or rock beds — dominates the GPR reflection profiles. The GPR-produced map of the subsurface environment is a fairly complete picture, capturing every distinct object and soil feature that is not significantly smaller than a quarter of a wavelength.

The LGPR’s main component is a waterproof, closely spaced 12-element antenna array that uses a very high frequency, stepped-frequency continuous wave to penetrate deeper beneath the ground than can typical GPR systems. This deeper look allows the LGPR to map the most stable, thus reliable, subsurface characteristics. “The GPR array is designed so that measurements from each element look similar and thus can be compared with others on subsequent passes,” Stanley says. A single-board computer is used to correlate the GPR data into a three-dimensional GPS-tagged GPR map and extract a corrected GPS position estimate.

The researchers who conducted the March test runs — Stanley, Jeffrey Koechling, and Henry Wegiel — alternated driving over a route in the Boston area during a snowstorm from midnight to 9 a.m. Correlation and overlap estimates demonstrated that the LGPR technique could accurately, and repeatedly, determine the vehicle’s position as it traveled. Post-processing methods on a sensor suite were then used to provide estimates of the accuracy of the system. “We thought the radar would see through snow, but it was wonderful to finally get the data proving it,” Koechling says.

Programming language is helping to solve problems

“Julia is a great tool.” That’s what New York University professor of economics and Nobel laureate Thomas J. Sargent told 250 engineers, computer scientists, programmers, and data scientists at the third annual JuliaCon held at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL).

If you have not yet heard of Julia, it is not a “who,” but a “what.” Developed at CSAIL, the MIT Department of Mathematics, and throughout the Julia community, it is a fast-maturing programming language developed to be simple to learn, highly dynamic, operational at the speed of C, and ranging in use from general programming to highly quantitative uses such as scientific computing, machine learning, data mining, large-scale linear algebra, and distributed and parallel computing. The language was launched open-source in 2012 and has begun to amass a large following of users and contributors.

This year’s JuliaCon, held June 21-25, was the biggest yet, and featured presentations describing how Julia is being used to solve complex problems in areas as diverse as economic modeling, spaceflight, bioinformatics, and many others.

“We are very excited about Julia because our models are complicated,” said Sargent, who is also a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution. “It’s easy to write the problem down, but it’s hard to solve it — especially if our model is high dimensional. That’s why we need Julia. Figuring out how to solve these problems requires some creativity. The guys who deserve a lot of the credit are the ones who figured out how to put this into a computer. This is a walking advertisement for Julia.” Sargent added that the reason Julia is important is because the next generation of macroeconomic models is very computationally intensive, using high-dimensional models and fitting them over extremely large data sets.

Sargent was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2011 for his work on macroeconomics. Together with John Stachurski he founded quantecon.net, a Julia- and Python-based learning platform for quantitative economics focusing on algorithms and numerical methods for studying economic problems as well as coding skills.

The Julia programming language was created and open-sourced thanks, in part, to a 2012 innovation grant awarded by the MIT Deshapnde Center for Technological Innovation. Julia combines the functionality of quantitative environments such as Matlab, R, SPSS, Stata, SAS, and Python with the speed of production programming languages like Java and C++ to solve big data and analytics problems. It delivers dramatic improvements in simplicity, speed, capacity, and productivity for data scientists, algorithmic traders, quants, scientists, and engineers who need to solve massive computation problems quickly and accurately. The number of Julia users has grown dramatically during the last five years, doubling every nine months. It is taught at MIT, Stanford University, and dozens of universities worldwide. Julia 0.5 will launch this month and Julia 1.0 in 2017.

Computational imaging method identifies

MIT researchers and their colleagues are designing an imaging system that can read closed books.

In the latest issue of Nature Communications, the researchers describe a prototype of the system, which they tested on a stack of papers, each with one letter printed on it. The system was able to correctly identify the letters on the top nine sheets.

“The Metropolitan Museum in New York showed a lot of interest in this, because they want to, for example, look into some antique books that they don’t even want to touch,” says Barmak Heshmat, a research scientist at the MIT Media Lab and corresponding author on the new paper. He adds that the system could be used to analyze any materials organized in thin layers, such as coatings on machine parts or pharmaceuticals.

Heshmat is joined on the paper by Ramesh Raskar, an associate professor of media arts and sciences; Albert Redo Sanchez, a research specialist in the Camera Culture group at the Media Lab; two of the group’s other members; and by Justin Romberg and Alireza Aghasi of Georgia Tech.

The MIT researchers developed the algorithms that acquire images from individual sheets in stacks of paper, and the Georgia Tech researchers developed the algorithm that interprets the often distorted or incomplete images as individual letters. “It’s actually kind of scary,” Heshmat says of the letter-interpretation algorithm. “A lot of websites have these letter certifications [captchas] to make sure you’re not a robot, and this algorithm can get through a lot of them.”

Timing terahertz

The system uses terahertz radiation, the band of electromagnetic radiation between microwaves and infrared light, which has several advantages over other types of waves that can penetrate surfaces, such as X-rays or sound waves. Terahertz radiation has been widely researched for use in security screening, because different chemicals absorb different frequencies of terahertz radiation to different degrees, yielding a distinctive frequency signature for each. By the same token, terahertz frequency profiles can distinguish between ink and blank paper, in a way that X-rays can’t.

Terahertz radiation can also be emitted in such short bursts that the distance it has traveled can be gauged from the difference between its emission time and the time at which reflected radiation returns to a sensor. That gives it much better depth resolution than ultrasound.

The system exploits the fact that trapped between the pages of a book are tiny air pockets only about 20 micrometers deep. The difference in refractive index — the degree to which they bend light — between the air and the paper means that the boundary between the two will reflect terahertz radiation back to a detector.

In the researchers’ setup, a standard terahertz camera emits ultrashort bursts of radiation, and the camera’s built-in sensor detects their reflections. From the reflections’ time of arrival, the MIT researchers’ algorithm can gauge the distance to the individual pages of the book.

True signals

While most of the radiation is either absorbed or reflected by the book, some of it bounces around between pages before returning to the sensor, producing a spurious signal. The sensor’s electronics also produce a background hum. One of the tasks of the MIT researchers’ algorithm is to filter out all this “noise.”

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A Brief History of Homes

About Smart Home Systems

Nowadays, the world is filled with fast development technology that lead to the invention of different smart home systems. These said systems no doubt has changed the way in which people live their life by offering simple and quick solutions to day to day household problems. There are many gadgets from smart home systems that have not only improved the speed to which people can finish their work but promotes better security of their house as well. Some of the gadgets that can be bought are:

Robot cleaners – with the wide range of cleaning jobs and the ability to clear out different types of flooring, these robot cleaners ease one cleaning issues. With smart technology applied to navigate to your house, the cleaning robots are able to clean your floors with great precision. With its automatic clean timer, users can just set the robot to clean the house even when they are at work.

So for a person who is works long hours or is very busy, this is a great gadget to have. It is even available to minimize the time that one uses in doing household chores so as enabling you to do other tasks that are more important and for that, it guarantees that your house stay spotless clean.

Wireless lighting bulbs – the latest technologies are often incorporated in these bulbs similar to LED. It is suitable for properties because they brighten one’s environment by creating cozy and comfortable light. They’re also convenient because they ensure that your house will stay bright as always. Moreover, they help in saving on electricity bills as they switch off and turn on at the set hours.

Smart monitor cameras – for homeowners who are security conscious, a security camera is something that should be in their arsenal. It ensures that you and everyone in the house is secured even when you’re not around. With built-in motion sensors, multiple views of your house as well as wireless data transfer, it can monitor everything that’s happening to your house. Smart cameras have the ability to monitor events even at night which alerts you or the security firm.

Air purifiers – they have filtering feature which ensures that there’s no bad odor will enter or stay in your house. So, for the next time that you want to give your house an upgrade, better considering to install one as this guarantees that your house’s humidity level will be regulated and has high quality air.

Still, there are lots of other smart home systems that may be used but these are enough proof that such systems have significantly transformed various aspects of the house.

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Finding Similarities Between Reviews and Life

Guide to Signal Jammers

Signal jammers are gadgets that are used mainly to interrupt or dislocate radio signals. The most common use of signal jammers is to disrupt cell phones from receiving and transmitting signals. If you want to disable someone’scellular phone, it will be easy for you to do it because these signal jammers are wireless and they can be used anywhere. And it is not only cell phones that there interfere with, but these signal jammers can also interfere with your wireless local area network or WLAN signals. This has correspondingly lead to the development and manufacture of jammers like Bluetooth jammers, Wi-Fi and wireless video jammers among others. If you have high-tech and sophisticated signal jammers, you can ever jam satellites.

The only time signal jammers will have a difficult time of interfering device signals is if your electronic devices is in good working condition. It is not only individuals who use signal jammers, the government also uses these and regulars its use and they only use it for jamming cellular phone communication lines. These jammers only affect the receiving end of the cell phone and the base station itself. It has a relatively small electromagnetic wave and is not known to have any harmful effect on the human body or the cell phone itself. There can only be health risks if you use bigger signal jammers like outdoor signal stations.

Signal jammers used to interfere with cell phone signal is the most common signal jammer available. The cellular phone is prevented from receiving signals from its base station, and this is done by blocking radio waves. Signal jammers cover a distance from 10 meters to one kilometer.

GPS signal jammers are also common used today. In order to confuse GPS tracking locations, the military uses GPS jammers. It is not possible to make homemade GPS signal jammers. For people who do not want the GPS receiver to know their location and that of their vehicle, they use the GPS signal jammer. Civilian GPS jammers are only good up to ten meters.

Bluetooth jammers are integrated with multi-functional jammers which is able to jam Wi-Fi signals and video. It disrupts and disables wireless LAN, Bluetooth devices, and video transmitting, for privacy.

These signal jammers are relatively low priced and this is the reason why it has gained popularity and is used repeatedly.

You can grab these cook signal jammers on the web. A simple cellular phone signal jammers usually costs less than fifty dollars for the cheapest ones and a little less than a hundred and fifty for the more expensive ones.

Getting To The Point – Equipment

Classes of Spy Gear Products. Technology is the use of modern techniques in all aspects of life. Technology has resulted into the abandoning of all the traditional techniques of doing things. For an instance, we have the application of computers. Traditional computers are nowhere to be found after the invention of modern computers. The modern computers are smaller in size and fast in the operation speed as compared with the past computers. The technology has benefited many sectors. There has been a huge production in many sectors as a result of technology. We have health, agricultural, industrial, and communication sector as areas where technology has improved. There a couple of advantageous equipment that has been produced as a result of technology. Spy gear products are categories of gadgets that have been manufactured as a result of technology. Spy gear products are devices that assist in tracking any activity done by other people. There are many benefits of spy gear products. You cannot spend much in the long run after buying spy gear products. Hiring a personal investigator each and every time can cost you a fortune. Spy gear products are meant to serve you for a long period of time thus having no need to hire an investigator. Spy gear products save time. Logging into the internet to check on the activity of the other does not take you much time. A personal investigator can take a lot of time to investigate a matter. There is no difficulty when using spy gear devices. It has been noted for the features found in spy gear products to allow the user operate them with ease. Spy gear gadgets does not occupy much space. You cannot of creating a space for spy gear products. The size of spy gear gadgets have been known to be small thus making them occupy less space. Spy gear products can be applied in every location that has a good internet connectivity. It is possible to know the behavior of your partner by use of spy gear products. This, for example, can be done to know the character of your wife or husband when at a distance. There are several classes of spy gear products. We have computer monitoring device. It is a requirement for you to install spy software on your computer. The function of his software is to record all the activities that are being carried on your computer. You only need to have a USB drive to download and view all the activities that have taken place on your computer. Cell phone recon device helps you to get back all the data that have been deleted in a phone. The function of a GPS vehicle tracking system is to aid in locating the position of your vehicle by use of Google map.A Simple Plan For Investigating Products

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If You Think You Get Plugins, Then This Might Change Your Mind

Increasing the Security of a Website with Secure WordPress Plugins There are now so many WordPress security plug-ins which you can use so that you can keep the WordPress sites secure as well as free from the hacker attacks too. Each of these plug-ins provide unique features as well as techniques in order to keep the sites away from the attention of the cyber criminals who are looking for attractive but really vulnerable websites that produce good traffic as well as income. Probably, one of the most excellent WordPress security plug-ins which you can make use of is the Secure WordPress plug-in. This could boost the security of your WP site by removing the error information in the login pages as well as adding the index.html to the directories. Such would also hide the WP version in the back-end dashboard for such non-admin user and eliminates the Windows Live Writer and also block the bad queries that would be harmful to the site. There are a lot that you can get from just installing such kind of plug-in to the site. You should keep in mind though that this is not sufficient to totally protect the website from all types of malicious scripts, malware and also other website hosting problems that may attack the site’s weak points. It is suggested that you must apply other methods aside from the plug-in to ensure security. What you must do is that you should update the core. A really huge factor that would permit the malware attack is by running the outdated software. Such factor has really contributed to over seventy percent of all cases of those hacker attacks in the past. There are a lot of ways on how you can update the core. One thing that you can actually do is to permit automatic update in the WordPress admin panel.
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Make sure that you also update the plug-ins as well as themes. This is one way that you will also be able to increase the website’s security. When there is an outdated core, those old and inactive themes as well as plug-ins could attract those malicious scripts and permit the attack of the site and steal those important information in your site. Though you think that these things are really working fine, you must never forget to update them in order to prevent those Internet evildoers from finding a hole where they can readily gain entry to your blog or website.
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You should also have a WP security service. This is going to keep the website version updated at all times and the other aspects that you may fail to remember. You need to choose someone who can identify all of the tricks and methods of the hacker and have them fixed.

Getting Creative With Gadgets Advice

Brilliant Inventions and Cool Gadgets

Brilliant inventions and cool gadgets prove the fact that necessity is the mother of invention. Invented cool gadgets are helpful as they serve a specific purpose. Inventions in ICT are used to drive growth in all other sectors. Features in invented cool gadgets are both complex and simple.

The working of Smartphones is reminiscent of computers. With Smartphones, people are capable of accessing important business resources needed in the field. The worth is enhanced by additional aspects. features installed in Smartphone boost the operations of salespeople. Apart from being friendly to the business environment they are adaptable. Systems are proliferating.

Installed features are in iPhones, Apple iOS, Symbian, Windows Mobile, Android, HP/Palm webOS and the Blackberry OS. Converting nuclear waste of lesser degree to fuel stands out as one of the best inventions ever. Temperature Sensors referred to as RTD Probes play a central role in the conversion process. The conversion system has designed chambers that handle each process. The first combustion chamber incinerates waste to create ash while at the same time exhausting particular matter and gases.

Timely, and the invention enables the controller to take charge of corrections. They are required in modification of the performance of every subsystem within the large waste disposal system. Enhanced inventions help in increasing performance. With the inventions, scheduling chores and processes is easy.

The sensors provide a swap embodiment within the waste disposal system that enables the linking of management system with several disposal mechanisms into a centralized control point. Alterations are done courtesy of sensors.

Mass Sensors constitute another excellent recent invention. The integrated control framework, courtesy of sensors, offers a technical leverage. Sustained control and maintenance measures serve this purpose. Sensors offer feedback which is used in preventing wastage of fuel in addition to giving room for total combustion of waste material. An advantage that comes in is that sensors help in having cleaner emissions. They have automated shut-down and start-up keys. It also offers the value of shared data collection and storage techniques through all the integrated subsystems. Generation of reports and their analysis becomes thorough.

Pressure Sensors in Sealed Gauges is another outstanding invention. Already, pressure sensors have pre-installed sensors whose requirements are set before. It is possible to alter the control system as it happens on the performance of the overall system in line with changes that allow emissions to change and changes in content of waste material. Using fuzzy logic, controllers envision the division of tasks that can detect changes occurring in operation conditions.

Internal processes are propelled without external support. The program benefits from fuzzy logic. Programming will also include authorization from the system operator directly before implementing changes to the predetermined performance degrees. As stated earlier, other sensors are used in collecting data and implementing data in the waste disposal system. Technically, sensors use modern techniques of applied in collecting data, procedures of control process organize measures, and reporting aspects after monitoring.

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Solaroo Energy Announces They are Partnering with SunPower

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

(South Jordan, Utah) Solaroo Energy proudly announces they have partnered with SunPower, makers of the best Solar Panels Utah. Solaroo Energy is considered one of only three companies with the standards required by SunPower to distribute their panels in the state. Engineers, contractors and installers who work with Solaroo have confidence in SunPower as their newest partner. Solaroo Energy has earned an outstanding reputation for being on the cutting edge of residential solar for many years and incorporates the sales, engineering and installation as a complete process managed and controlled under one roof.

“At this time, 8.2 million quads of solar energy arrive at the earth every year, yet only 400 quads are currently used across the globe. A great deal of energy is being wasted as a result. Surprisingly, only .0005 percent of the earth would need to be covered with solar panels to power the entire globe, and Solaroo Energy and SunPower are working to help individuals and businesses make use of this free energy that isn’t going away,” Kelly Curtis, spokesperson for the Solar Utah company, explains.

Solar energy users currently save 75 million barrels of oil every year, along with 35 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. This benefits the planet in numerous ways, yet America isn’t the leader in solar energy usage. In fact, the country comes in fourth, behind Germany, Spain and Japan. Germany currently has 9, 785 MW solar energy installed, while the United States has 1,650 MW.

“Now is the time to convert to solar energy. Today, only .9 percent of global energy is provided by solar energy. We’d like to see this change, and the partnership between SunPower and Solaroo Energy will help to achieve this goal. Consumers can take advantage of the Federal Tax Credit, a credit which covers 30 percent of the cost of solar, and Utah grants a tax credit of up to $2,000. Businesses find they obtain even more tax advantages when they choose to convert to solar energy, so now is the time to act,” Curtis states.

Home values increase when a residence is powered by solar, and these homes sell faster than their non-solar counterparts. Very little maintenance is required once the panels are installed. The owner simply needs to monitor production to ensure the system is working as intended. 

“Contact us today to discuss the benefits of solar power. A Solar Expert from our team will be happy to answer any questions and address any concerns you may have, so click here now. While speaking to us, be sure to ask about financing options or click here now for more information. We want to help you make the change to solar energy, and financing is one of the many ways we can do so,” Curtis declares. You can view the contact information below, or find out more here. 

About Solaroo Energy:

Solaroo Energy brings a combined experience of more than 60 years in the construction and solar industries and can proudly boast they have the best team in Utah. The sales team is educated and skilled at helping customers determine precisely what they need. In addition, the award-winning management team and engineers work with great precision to ensure the job is done correctly. All installers employed by the company are friendly and experienced and take pride in their work. Clients know they are in good hands when working with the Solaroo team.

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A Beginners Guide To Websites

Internet Success Tips Every Entrepreneur Should Know About

Many people who are unable to make money on the web do so for numerous reasons. The same thing does work for those who are productive. Listed here are 5 Internet business success ideas that can help you belong to those people who are categorized as victorious.

1. Target markets where individuals are presently wasting cash. If you should be about how you need to begin an internet home-based company undecided follow what currently is working for successful business owners.

This implies selling goods in niches where folks spend money most of the period. Examples of these contain activities for example tennis, the job at home marketplace diet and weight reduction, animals, interests for example projects, and a whole lot more.

2. If you do not have a product of your own to sell consider signing up for an affiliate program. Affiliate marketing gives one to market other people’s products. You’ll find infinite products of internet goods you can offer, but one key will be to buy the product before you start advertising it and study everything about it.

3. Market your items online by providing useful info while in the type of review pages or pre-sell web pages. Since people get online looking for data before they expect you’ll purchase a solution, this is a significant stage.

4. On pre-sell webpage or your review page, include a join sort the place where a person may give you current email address and their label in exchange for getting something of-value.

For example, you may give you a free document if your person provides you with their brand and email address. Your aim here’s to start developing top list of readers that one may follow up with in the long run to generate income.

5. Learn one kind of advertising your organization out and inside before accepting a different one. Simply because they never get significant traffic on the constant foundation for their site several Web companies fail.

The explanation for this is they do not learn how to get traffic around hoping numerous factors without actually learning one in-depth and so they bounce. This is an incredibly crucial stage, and also you should realize that it might consider hrs to you, and sometimes even countless hours to become a specialist on a single approach to obtaining the traffic.

These are the five vital online business success guidelines that when adopted by you boost the probabilities of internet success within a short period of time. By spending so much time on the constant foundation and pursuing these five guidelines, your probabilities for achievement may significantly improve!

Why not learn more about Apps?

A Guide to Music Downloading

Because of the development of the technology, there a lot of devices upgraded today. From just a simple text and call phone, mobile phones can now be used from many purposes and also entertainment. Cell phone nowadays has been made more sophisticated. You can even have your own ringtone downloaded.

If you want to get the best quality when taking pictures, downloading movies and videos, downloading music and reading emails, you will need a device with the complete and latest features. It must have Mp3 or music player, camera, large video display and many other features.

You can now listen to your favourite music when you are at work and you want some laid back music to relax to, or if you want to sing along with your favourite in the shower, or have some upbeat songs when you are working out. You can even enjoy your favourite music when you are travelling. If you want to have the best of quality in the song you download; you must choose the music downloading sites which are legal. Legitimate music downloading apps get your favourite tracks from the record label and artists.

If you want free mp3 tracks, there so many free music downloading sites in the internet. You just have to find the legitimate ones to make sure that you have the best quality to enjoy your music. Of course, there are a lot of risks when you download anything online especially when it is for free. However, you do not have to worry because there a lot of sways for you to be able to download your favorite song and music without any risks and for free.

We know that you are excited now to add your favourite songs in your playlist in your smart phones, mp3 players or iPods. But you have to consider the risk when getting the free tracks. If you want to know how to get these free songs without any worry, then you continue reading this article.

Free music downloading sites can be found easily when you search for the keywords in the internet. And once you search it, there will be tons of them. From all these sites available, you must be able to weed out the legit and good sites for you to have tour music downloaded. You must not risk downloading your tracks from those which are not legit since itv will only give you poor quality songs. If you choose the ones which are legit, you are sure to enjoy a great quality of music. There are a lot of pitfalls when you download from sites which are not legit. Aside from downloading poor quality music, these can also serve as a portal to adult sites.

The great thing is that it can be downloaded in your mobile device. In this way, downloading songs is made easier. Its design is also made all the process of downloading your favourite music in your device. Or, you may also have it downloaded from your PC and then transfer it to your phone.

The Beginners Guide To Cures (From Step 1)

Everything You Need To Know About The Different Types Of Dyslexia

A lot of people are confused with the meaning of dyslexia.

What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia actually has two meanings.

The first meaning is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. Which means, dyslexia refers to problems with words. People that are having difficulty in reading has dyslexia.

The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This is mostly used by dyslexic adults and by parents of dyslexics. In the application aspect, dyslexia refers to different symptoms like problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.

As you can see ,the meaning of the word dyslexia really greatly depends on how it is being used.

In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall subdivided the word dyslexia and they describe each kind dyslexia. Their idea started with phonological dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia and surface dyslexia.

Below are the different kinds of dyslexia:

A. Surface dyslexia

The symptom of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. For example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty

B. Phonological dyslexia

Phonological dyslexia is the difficulty of grasping the phonics of the English language. People that have phonological dyslexia have problems in reading new words.

C. Double deficit dyslexia

Double deficit dyslexia is the word that they used to individuals that have phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia.

D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia

The visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia are from the magnocellular theory. In this theory, people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells that can be found in the thalamus part of brain. This part of the brain is where they process visual and auditory information.

There are studies that proves that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.

Children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.

E. Orthographic dyslexia

Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that will create a language. The english alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have thousands of different kinds of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia is problems with the identification and manipulation of letters in spelling, writing and reading.